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Genele si obezitatea

Genele si obezitatea

Pana in prezent,  au fost identificate opt gene ale caror defecte au un impact asupra greutatii corporale si a eficientei dietelor.

Aceste opt gene pot fi analizate genetic cu ajutorul Senzorului de Greutate sau pachetului DNAnutriControl, din oferta MyBodyGuide.

Metoda utilizata examineaza regiuni specifice ale genelor (asa-numitele SNPs) pentru defecte care determina tendintele respective pentru pierderea excesului de greutate.

Rezumatul studiilor stiintifice

Baza stiitifica a acestei analize genetice este extrem de puternica. Genele relevante au fost examinate in numeroase studii (mai mult de 7500 de studii ale genei PPARG, 167 studii privind FABP2 gena, 6,897 studiile pentru ADRB2 de gene si 493 de studii privind FTO), in timp ce analiza de greutate se bazeaza pe cele mai importante 53 de studii pe dieta subiect si nutritie.

Opt polimorfisme cu efecte diferite asupra organismului sunt analizate in contextul interpretarii relatiei dintre gene si obezitate. Din moment ce aceasta este o analiza foarte cuprinzatoare, ne vom concentra numai pe cele mai importante elemente. Acestea sunt:

  • Afirmatia 1: Oamenii raspund diferit la continutul de grasime existent in dieta din cauza polimorfismelor genetice. O adaptare a continutului de grăsime are sens in acest context.
  • Afirmatia 2: Oamenii reactioneaza diferit la continutul de carbohidrati din alimente. O adaptare a continutului de carbohidrati din acest context are sens de asemenea.
  • Afirmatia 3: Genele influenteaza rezultatele programelor de pierdere in greutate cu pana la 2,5 ori, in mai bine sau mai rau.
  • Afirmatia 4: Polimorfismele genetice afecteaza modul in care organismul raspunde la sport in procesul de pierdere în greutate.
  • Afirmatia 5: Genele influenteaza succesul unei reduceri de calorii in procesul de pierdere in greutate.

Programul detecteaza aceste tendinte prin interpretarea analizei genetice in urma careia distribuția de calorii este adaptata in mod corespunzator, fiind recomandata strategia care obtine rezultatele cele mai bune, in contextul realitatilor genetice existente. Mai mult sport sau o reducere mai mare de calorii?

Scopul acestei secțiuni este de a furniza date concrete in sprijinul fiecarei afirmatii de mai sus si de a sublinia baza stiintifică a programului.

Afirmatia 1: Oamenii raspund diferit la continutul de grasime existent in dieta din cauza polimorfismelor genetice. O adaptare a continutului de grasime are sens in acest context.

Un exemplu extrem de interesant este oferit de studiul realizat de un grup de cercetatori (Robitaille et al, Clin Genet 63:. 109-116, 2003), care a determinat faptul ca din cei 720 de subiecți analizati, numai cei cu o varianta mai putin favorabila a genei PPARG (Pro13Ala) au castigat in greutate in timp ce urmau o dieta deosebit de bogata in grasimi. Acest efect genetic a fost confirmat intr-un studiu separat si de catre grupul independent de cercetare (Memisoglu et al, Molecular Human Genetics 13:. 2923-2929, 2001). Raspunsul organismului la diete bogate sau sarace in grasimi poate fi prezis prin identificarea acestui defect genetic.

Publicatii

  • http://www.jbc.org/content/276/43/39679.long J Biol Chem. 2001 Oct 26;276(43):39679-84. Epub 2001 Aug 3. The polymorphism at codon 54 of the FABP2 gene increases fat absorption in human intestinal explants. Levy E, Ménard D, Delvin E, Stan S, Mitchell G, Lambert M, Ziv E, Feoli-Fonseca JC, Seidman E.
  • http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/90/6/1483.long Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Dec;90(6):1483-8. Epub 2009 Oct 14. The FTO gene rs9939609 obesity-risk allele and loss of control over eating. Tanofsky-Kraff M, Han JC, Anandalingam K, Shomaker LB, Columbo KM, Wolkoff LE, Kozlosky M, Elliott C, Ranzenhofer LM, Roza CA, Yanovski SZ, Yanovski JA.
  • http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/90/5/1418.long Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Nov;90(5):1418-25. Epub 2009 Sep 2. Fat and carbohydrate intake modify the association between genetic variation in the FTO genotype and obesity. Sonestedt E, Roos C, Gullberg B, Ericson U, Wirfält E, Orho-Melander M.
  • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=19901143 Arch Intern Med. 2009 Nov 9;169(20):1897-906. APOA2, dietary fat, and body mass index: replication of a gene-diet interaction in 3 independent populations. Corella D, Peloso G, Arnett DK, Demissie S, Cupples LA, Tucker K, Lai CQ, Parnell LD, Coltell O, Lee YC, Ordovas JM.
  • http://atvb.ahajournals.org/content/18/10/1606.long Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1998 Oct;18(10):1606-10. Postprandial lipemic response is modified by the polymorphism at codon 54 of the fatty acid-binding protein 2 gene. Agren JJ, Valve R, Vidgren H, Laakso M, Uusitupa M.
  • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=17378725 Clin Chem Lab Med. 2007;45(3):316-20. Polymorphisms in the APOA1/C3/A4/A5 gene cluster and cholesterol responsiveness to dietary change. Hubacek JA, Bohuslavova R, Skodova Z, Pitha J, Bobkova D, Poledne R.
  • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=13630956 Clin Genet. 2003 Feb;63(2):109-16. The PPAR-gamma P13A polymorphism modulates the relationship between dietary fat intake and components of the metabolic syndrome: results from the Québec Family Study. Robitaille J, Després JP, Pérusse L, Vohl MC.
  • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=21179003 Int J Obes (Lond). 2011 Aug;35(8):1041-9. doi: 10.1038/ijo.2010.263. Epub 2010 Dec 21. Association between fat intake, physical activity and mortality depending on genetic variation in FTO. Sonestedt E, Gullberg B, Ericson U, Wirfält E, Hedblad B, Orho-Melander M.
  • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=20975728 Int J Obes (Lond). 2011 May;35(5):666-75. Epub 2010 Oct 26. Association between the APOA2 promoter polymorphism and body weight in Mediterranean and Asian populations: replication of a gene-saturated fat interaction. Corella D, Tai ES, Sorlí JV, Chew SK, Coltell O, Sotos-Prieto M, García-Rios A, Estruch R, Ordovas JM.
  • http://www.jlr.org/content/41/13/2002.long J Lipid Res. 2000 Dec;41(13):2002-8. Effects of an Ala54Thr polymorphism in the intestinal fatty acidbinding protein on responses to dietary fat in humans. Pratley RE, Baier L, Pan DA, Salbe AD, Storlien L, Ravussin E, Bogardus C.
  • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=17211608 J Mol Med (Berl). 2007 Feb;85(2):119-28. Epub 2007 Jan 9. APOA5 gene variation modulates the effects of dietary fat intake on body mass index and obesity risk in the Framingham Heart Study. Corella D, Lai CQ, Demissie S, Cupples LA, Manning AK, Tucker KL, Ordovas JM.
  • http://jn.nutrition.org/content/139/13/2301.long J Nutr. 2009 Dec;139(13):2301-8. Epub 2009 Oct 14. Apolipoprotein A5 polymorphisms interact with total dietary fat intake in association with markers of metabolic syndrome in Puerto Rican older adults. Mattei J, Demissie S, Tucker KL, Ordovas JM.
  • http://jn.nutrition.org/content/141/13/2219.long J Nutr. 2011 Dec;141(13):2219-25. Epub 2011 Nov 2. A High Intake of Saturated Fatty Acids Strengthens the Association between the Fat Mass and Obesity-Associated Gene and BMI. Corella D, Arnett DK, Tucker KL, Kabagambe EK, Tsai M, Parnell LD, Lai CQ, Lee YC, Warodomwichit D, Hopkins PN, Ordovas JM.
  • http://jn.nutrition.org/content/141/3/380.long J Nutr. 2011 Mar;141(3):380-5. Epub 2011 Jan 5. APOA5 gene variation interacts with dietary fat intake to modulate obesity and circulating triglycerides in a Mediterranean population. Sánchez-Moreno C, Ordovás JM, Smith CE, Baraza JC, Lee YC, Garaulet M.
  • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=16311100 Metabolism. 2005 Dec;54(13):1652-8. Comparison of the acute response to meals enriched with cis- or trans-fatty acids on glucose and lipids in overweight individuals with differing FABP2 genotypes. Lefevre M, Lovejoy JC, Smith SR, Delany JP, Champagne C, Most MM, Denkins Y, de Jonge L, Rood J, Bray GA.
  • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=14981327 Obes Res. 2004 Feb;13(2):340-5.Intestinal FABP2 A54T polymorphism: association with insulin resistance and obesity in women. Albala C, Santos JL, Cifuentes M, Villarroel AC, Lera L, Liberman C, Angel B, Pérez-Bravo F.

 

Afirmatia 2: Oamenii reactioneaza diferit la continutul de carbohidrati din alimente. In acest context, o adaptare a continutului de carbohidrati are, de asemenea, sens.

Un studiu in „Journal of Nutrition”, a aratat ca persoanele cu polimorfismul Gln27Glu in gena ADRB2 au tendinta semnificativ mai mare de a deveni supraponderali (OR: 2,56) atunci cand primesc mai mult de 49% din caloriile zilnice din carbohidrati.

Publicaţii

  • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/13888635 J Nutr. 2003 Aug;133(8):2549-54. Obesity risk is associated with carbohydrate intake in women carrying the Gln27Glu beta2-adrenoceptor polymorphism. Martínez JA, Corbalán MS, Sánchez-Villegas A, Forga L, Marti A, Martínez-González MA.

 

Afirmatia 3: Genele influenteaza rezultatele programelor de pierdere in greutate cu pana la 2,5 ori, in mai bine sau mai rau.

Un studiu de la (Lindi si altii, Diabetes 51:. 2581-2586, 2002) a ajuns la concluzia ca persoanele care au urmat timp de trei ani un program lejer de dieta si exercitii fizice pierd de circa 2,5 ori mai mult in greutate, daca au varianta favorabila a genei decat daca au varianta nefavorabila a acesteia (în medie, 8.3 kg fata de 3.4 kg). Cu toate acestea, prezenta variantei favorabile a genei prezinta si un dezavantaj: la un an dupa efectuarea studiului, cand greutatea corporala a subiectilor a fost masurata din nou, s-a putut observa ca oamenii cu varianta favorabila a genei au crescut semnificativ mai mult in greutate decat grupul cu varianta nefavorabila a acesteia. Astfel, putem spune ca, pentru cei cu varianta favorabila a genei, sportul si dieta sunt eficiente dar, din pacate, si efectul de yo-yo este mai puternic.

Publicaţii

  • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=13145174 Diabetes. 2002 Aug;51(8):2581-6. Association of the Pro13Ala polymorphism in the PPAR-gamma2 gene with 3-year incidence of type 2 diabetes and body weight change in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study. Lindi VI, Uusitupa MI, Lindström J, Louheranta A, Eriksson JG, Valle TT, Hämäläinen H, Ilanne-Parikka P, Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi S, Laakso M, Tuomilehto J; Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study.

 

Afirmatia 4: Polimorfismele genetice afecteaza modul in care organismul raspunde la sport in procesul de pierdere în greutate.

Eficacitatea sportului in procesul de pierdere a greutatii este puternic influentata de gene. Studiul (Diabet Obes Metab 2002 noiembrie; 4 (6):.. 428-30) este unul dintre multele care arata ca persoanele cu o anumita varianta genetica a genei ADRB2 au avut o tendinta semnificativa de a fi supraponderali, dar numai in cazul in care au avut un stil de viata inactiv. Daca acesti oameni practicau sportul, varianta genetica identificata nu a avut nici o influenta asupra riscului lor de a fi supraponderali. Prin urmare, efectul respectivei variante genetice ar putea fi anulata printr-o schimbare a stilului de viata. Un studiu independent care a analizat aceeasi gena (Diabetes Care 1997 decembrie, 20 (13):.. 1887-1890) arata ca persoanele cu varianta mai putin favorabiaă a genei pierd semnificativ mai putin in greutate prin sport decat persoanele cu varianta favorabila, chiar in cazul in care acestea fac la fel de mult efort ca si cei din grupul de control. Deci, pentru persoanele ce poseda varianta genetica a genei ADRB2 sportul nu reprezinta cea mai buna strategie de pierdere in greutate. Angajatii salilor de sport sunt familiarizati cu aceste diferente semnificative in rata de succes a proceselor de pierdere în greutate. Aceste efecte genetice au fost confirmate si de numeroase alte studii (Eur J Intern Med 2007 decembrie, 18 (8):.. 587-92, Obes Res 2004 May; 13 (5):. 807-15, Int J Obes Reiat Metab Disord. 2003 septembrie; 27 (9): 1028-1036).

Publicaţii

  • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=16741364 Obesity (Silver Spring). 2006 Apr;14(4):529-644. The human obesity gene map: the 2005 update. Rankinen T, Zuberi A, Chagnon YC, Weisnagel SJ, Argyropoulos G, Walts B, Pérusse L, Bouchard C.
  • http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/90/5/1418.long Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Nov;90(5):1418-25. Epub 2009 Sep 2. Fat and carbohydrate intake modify the association between genetic variation in the FTO genotype and obesity. Sonestedt E, Roos C, Gullberg B, Ericson U, Wirfält E, Orho-Melander M.
  • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=20650268 Clin Chim Acta. 2010 Nov 11;411(21-22):1716-22. Epub 2010 Jul 25. Effects of common FTO gene variants associated with BMI on dietary intake and physical activity in Koreans. Lee HJ, Kim IK, Kang JH, Ahn Y, Han BG, Lee JY, Song J.
  • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=9405913 Diabetes Care. 1997 Dec;20(13):1887-90. Effects of Trp64Arg mutation in the beta 3-adrenergic receptor gene on weight loss, body fat distribution, glycemic control, and insulin resistance in obese type 2 diabetic patients. Sakane N, Yoshida T, Umekawa T, Kogure A, Takakura Y, Kondo M.
  • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=13406043 Diabetes Obes Metab. 2002 Nov;4(6):428-30. TRP64ARG polymorphism of the beta 3-adrenergic receptor gene and obesity risk: effect modification by a sedentary lifestyle. Marti A, Corbalán MS, Martínez-Gonzalez MA, Martinez JA.
  • http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/51/8/2581.long Diabetes. 2002 Aug;51(8):2581-6. Association of the Pro13Ala polymorphism in the PPAR-gamma2 gene with 3-year incidence of type 2 diabetes and body weight change in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study. Lindi VI, Uusitupa MI, Lindström J, Louheranta A, Eriksson JG, Valle TT, Hämäläinen H, Ilanne-Parikka P, Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi S, Laakso M, Tuomilehto J; Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study.
  • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=15986237 Diabetologia. 2005 Aug;48(8):1503-9. Epub 2005 Jun 29. Influence of Pro13Ala peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma2 polymorphism on glucose response to exercise training in type 2 diabetes. Adamo KB, Sigal RJ, Williams K, Kenny G, Prud’homme D, Tesson F.
  • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=18054709 Eur J Intern Med. 2007 Dec;18(8):587-92. Epub 2007 Sep 10. Influence of the Trp64Arg polymorphism in the beta 3 adrenoreceptor gene on insulin resistance, adipocytokine response, and weight loss secondary to lifestyle modification in obese patients. de Luis DA, Gonzalez Sagrado M, Aller R, Izaola O, Conde R.
  • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=15778927 Horm Metab Res. 2005 Feb;37(2):99-105. Influence of the PPARgamma2 Pro13Ala and ACE I/D polymorphisms on insulin sensitivity and training effects in healthy offspring of type 2 diabetic subjects. Østergård T, Ek J, Hamid Y, Saltin B, Pedersen OB, Hansen T, Schmitz O.
  • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=21179003 Int J Obes (Lond). 2011 Aug;35(8):1041-9. doi: 10.1038/ijo.2010.263. Epub 2010 Dec 21. Association between fat intake, physical activity and mortality depending on genetic variation in FTO. Sonestedt E, Gullberg B, Ericson U, Wirfält E, Hedblad B, Orho-Melander M.
  • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=13917707 Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2003 Sep;27(9):1028-36. Difficulty in losing weight by behavioral intervention for women with Trp64Arg polymorphism of the beta3-adrenergic receptor gene. Shiwaku K, Nogi A, Anuurad E, Kitajima K, Enkhmaa B, Shimono K, Yamane Y.
  • http://jcem.endojournals.org/content/83/7/2441.long J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1998 Jul;83(7):2441-4.Meta-analysis of the association of Trp64Arg polymorphism of beta 3-adrenergic receptor gene with body mass index. Fujisawa T, Ikegami H, Kawaguchi Y, Ogihara T.
  • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=11743057 Obes Res. 2001 Dec;9(13):741-5. Association of BMI with the beta3-adrenergic receptor gene polymorphism in Japanese: meta-analysis. Kurokawa N, Nakai K, Kameo S, Liu ZM, Satoh H.
  • http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=15166301 Obes Res. 2004 May;13(5):807-15. Association between body fat response to exercise training and multilocus ADR genotypes. Phares DA, Halverstadt AA, Shuldiner AR, Ferrell RE, Douglass LW, Ryan AS, Goldberg AP, Hagberg JM.

 

Afirmatia 5: Genele influenteaza succesul unei reduceri de calorii in procesul de pierdere in greutate. Proporția de carbohidrati si grasimi din dieta poate fi personalizata in functie de predispozitia genetica. Prin urmare, persoanele sensibile la grasime vor avea mai multe beneficiii in cazul unei diete saraca in grasimi in timp ce persoanele sensibile la carbohidrati vor avea mai multe beneficiii in cazul unei diete saraca in carbohidrati.

Prin urmare, aceste doua tendințe genetice permit formularea unor concluzii cu privire la cine este sensibil fie la cantitatea de carbohidrati sau de grasimi din dieta. Astfel, in cazul în care o persoana este mai putin sensibila la cantitatea de grasime in produsele alimentare, ea va avea tendinta (in conformitate cu publicatiile mentionate anterior) de a deveni supraponderala numai atunci cand continutul de carbohidrati este de aproximativ 49%, putandu-se astfel concluziona ca o dieta cu mai multe grasimi si mai putin carbohidrati va avea un impact pozitiv asupra greutații corporale. O persoana cu polimorfismele potrivite nu va castiga in greutate in urma unei diete care contine mai multe grasimi si mai putini carbohidrati.

Toate rezultatele si procesele noastre se bazeaza pe cea mai noua stiinta si tehnologie si sunt adaptate in mod optim pentru a raspunde cerintelor legale in vigoare.

Toate materialele stiintifice ce sprijina succesul programului DNAnutriControl

  • Statistisches Bundesamt (Hrsg.): Statistisches Jahrbuch 2005. S. 238
  • VERA-Schriftenreihe: „Lebensmittel- und Nährstoffaufnahme in der BRD (1985–1989)“, Band XII, Wissenschaftlicher Fachverlag, Niederkleen, 1994
  • Stunkard AJ, Harris JR, Pedersen NL, McClearn GE. The body-mass index of twins who have been reared apart. N Engl J Med 1990;322:1483–1487
  • Rankinen T, Zuberi A, Chagnon YC, Weisnagel SJ, Argyropoulos G, Walts B, Pérusse L, Bouchard C. The human obesity gene map: the 2005 update. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2006 Apr;14(4):529-644.
  • Skender ML, Goodrick GK, Del Junco DJ, Reeves RS, Darnell L, Gotto A, et al. Comparison of 2-year weight loss trends in behavioral treatments of obesity: Diet, exercise, and combination interventions. J Am Diet Assoc 1996;96:342-6.
  • Wing RR. Behavioural treatment of severe obesity. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;55(2 Suppl):545-551
  • Garrow JS. Exercise in the treatment of obesity: a marginal contribution. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1995a;19(Suppl 4):136-9, kein Abstract, Evidenzklasse: IV.
  • Epstein LH, Coleman KJ, Myers MD. Exercise in treating obesity in children and adolescents. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1996a;28(4):428-35.
  • Harrell JS, Johnston LF, Griggs TR, Schaefer P, Carr EG, Jr., McMurray RG, et al. An occupation based physical activity intervention program: improving fitness and decreasing obesity. Aaohn J 1996;44(8):377-84.
  • Buemann B, Tremblay A. Effects of exercise training on abdominal obesity and related metabolic complications. Sports Med 1996;21(3):191-213. References Page 34 of 37
  • Hauner H. Strategie der Adipositastherapie. Der Internist 1997;3:244-250.
  • De Luis D A et al., Ann Nutr Metab 50: 354-360, 2006
  • Lindi et al., Diabetes 51: 2581-2586, 2002
  • Martinez et al., J Nutr 133: 2549-2554, 2003
  • Masuo et al., Circulation 111: 3429-3434, 2005
  • Marti et al., Diabetes Obes Metab 4: 428-430, 2002
  • Shiwaku et al., Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 27: 1028-1036, 2003
  • Schon leichtes Übergewicht beeinträchtigt die Lebenserwartung, MMW-Fortschr. Med. Nr. 51-52 / 2006 (148. Jg.), S.28
  • Elias, M. F. et al.: Obesity, diabetes and cognitive deficit: The Framingham Heart Study. In: Neurobiol Aging.. 26, Nr. 1, 2005, S.11-16.
  • Wolf P. A. et al.: Relation of obesity to cognitive function: importance of central obesity and synergistic influence of concomitant hypertension. The Framingham Heart Study. In: Curr Alzheimer Res.. 4, Nr. 2, 2007, S. 111-116.
  • Irie F. et al.: Enhanced risk for Alzheimer disease in persons with type 2 diabetes and APOE epsilon4: the Cardiovascular Health Study Cognition Study. In: Arch Neurol.. 65, Nr. 1, 2008, S. 83-89.
  • Xu W. L. et al.: Uncontrolled diabetes increases the risk of Alzheimer’s disease: a population-based cohort study. In: Diabetologia.. 52, Nr. 6, 2009, S. 1031–1039.
  • Naderali, E. K. et al.: Obesity and Alzheimer’s Disease: A Link Between Body Weight and Cognitive Function in Old Age. In: Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen.
  • Cyrus A. R. et al.: Brain Structure and Obesity. In: Human Brain Mapping.
  • Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Dec;90(6):1483-8. Epub 2009 Oct 14. The FTO gene rs9939609 obesity-risk allele and loss of control over eating. Tanofsky-Kraff M, Han JC, Anandalingam K, Shomaker LB, Columbo KM, Wolkoff LE, Kozlosky M, Elliott C, Ranzenhofer LM, Roza CA, Yanovski SZ, Yanovski JA.
  • Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Nov;90(5):1418-25. Epub 2009 Sep 2. Fat and carbohydrate intake modify the association between genetic variation in the FTO genotype and obesity. Sonestedt E, Roos C, Gullberg B, Ericson U, Wirfält E, Orho-Melander M.
  • Arch Intern Med. 2009 Nov 9;169(20):1897-906. APOA2, dietary fat, and body mass index: replication of a gene-diet interaction in 3 independent populations. Corella D, Peloso G, Arnett DK, Demissie S, Cupples LA, Tucker K, Lai CQ, Parnell LD, Coltell O, Lee YC, Ordovas JM.
  • Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1998 Oct;18(10):1606-10. Postprandial lipemic response is modified by the polymorphism at codon 54 of the fatty acid-binding protein 2 gene. Agren JJ, Valve R, Vidgren H, Laakso M, Uusitupa M.
  • Clin Chem Lab Med. 2007;45(3):316-20. Polymorphisms in the APOA1/C3/A4/A5 gene cluster and cholesterol responsiveness to dietary change. Hubacek JA, Bohuslavova R, Skodova Z, Pitha J, Bobkova D, Poledne R.
  • Clin Chim Acta. 2010 Nov 11;411(21-22):1716-22. Epub 2010 Jul 25. Effects of common FTO gene variants associated with BMI on dietary intake and physical activity in Koreans. Lee HJ, Kim IK, Kang JH, Ahn Y, Han BG, Lee JY, Song J.
  • Clin Genet. 2003 Feb;63(2):109-16. The PPAR-gamma P13A polymorphism modulates the relationship between dietary fat intake and components of the metabolic syndrome: results from the Québec Family Study. Robitaille J, Després JP, Pérusse L, Vohl MC. Page 35 of 37
  • Diabetes Care. 1997 Dec;20(13):1887-90. Effects of Trp64Arg mutation in the beta 3-adrenergic receptor gene on weight loss, body fat distribution, glycemic control, and insulin resistance in obese type 2 diabetic patients. Sakane N, Yoshida T, Umekawa T, Kogure A, Takakura Y, Kondo M.
  • Diabetes Obes Metab. 2002 Nov;4(6):428-30. TRP64ARG polymorphism of the beta 3-adrenergic receptor gene and obesity risk: effect modification by a sedentary lifestyle. Marti A, Corbalán MS, Martínez-Gonzalez MA, Martinez JA.
  • 2002 Aug;51(8):2581-6. Association of the Pro13Ala polymorphism in the PPAR-gamma2 gene with 3-year incidence of type 2 diabetes and body weight change in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study. Lindi VI, Uusitupa MI, Lindström J, Louheranta A, Eriksson JG, Valle TT, Hämäläinen H, Ilanne-Parikka P, Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi S, Laakso M, Tuomilehto J; Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study.
  • 2005 Aug;48(8):1503-9. Epub 2005 Jun 29. Influence of Pro13Ala peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma2 polymorphism on glucose response to exercise training in type 2 diabetes. Adamo KB, Sigal RJ, Williams K, Kenny G, Prud’homme D, Tesson F.
  • Eur J Intern Med. 2007 Dec;18(8):587-92. Epub 2007 Sep 10. Influence of the Trp64Arg polymorphism in the beta 3 adrenoreceptor gene on insulin resistance, adipocytokine response, and weight loss secondary to lifestyle modification in obese patients. de Luis DA, Gonzalez Sagrado M, Aller R, Izaola O, Conde R.
  • Horm Metab Res. 2005 Feb;37(2):99-105. Influence of the PPARgamma2 Pro13Ala and ACE I/D polymorphisms on insulin sensitivity and training effects in healthy offspring of type 2 diabetic subjects. Østergård T, Ek J, Hamid Y, Saltin B, Pedersen OB, Hansen T, Schmitz O.
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